When folks think of Apartheid & the semi-executed Separate Development offshoot of it: most people tend to believe that it was created by the "local White population" [ folks with long roots in the region ] & many even erroneously believe that it was created by Boers or descendents of Boers [ in spite of the fact that the Boers were often largely impoverished & did not have or even go to institutions of higher learning even when they were independent in the 19th cent. & were soon outnumbered by the larger White population once they were incorporated into the new state of South Africa. ] More people are starting to realize that the British instituted the policies which were soon termed Apartheid but not too many people appear to realize that even the Separate Development phase - also termed Grand Apartheid [ 1 ] was not created by folks with a linage in the South African region. A lot of people already know that the most notable politician who promoted Grand Apartheid was the Dutch born Hendrik Verweord but fewer tend to mention that Verwoerd's right hand man & the intellectual architect of Grand Apartheid was the son of a German missionary named Werner Eiselen: [ 2 ] [ aside from Verwoerd ] the actual brains behind the plan to implement Separate Development. [ 3 ] Fewer people still even realize that Werner Eiselen left the government over the belief that he felt that Separate Development was not being authentically & fully implemented by the government.
The following is the relevant quote from The White Tribe of Africa. [ Dr Werner Eiselen, a leading Broederbond theorist and Verwoerd's Secretary of Native Affairs, resigned his post in 1960 and became High Commissioner for Bophutha Tswana. Some said it was because of his general disillusionment that so little had been done to promote genuine separate development. Some time later he gave an interview to a French journalist who wanted to know why the government had not practiced what it had preached. "My dear sir, you can't imagine the bitterness of our internal political struggles. The opposition criticizes us when we put into practice what they demand in theory, that it to say when we improve the lot of the Bantu. The farmers lose sight of our aim, they do not think ahead. When the state purchases land for the Bantu they say: ' Perhaps it is my farm they are going to buy up tomorrow. ' Our people... only think of their daily comfort. They accept the theory. But at the same time they want comfort. Obviously a generous theory and unchallenged comfort are incompatible." ] From: Page 180 of The White Tribe of Africa: South Africa in Perspective. By David Harrison.
The West likes to impugn White South Africans in general over those former top-down policies as though they had a direct hand in their implementation. Fact is even the White Afrikaans speaking electorate did not support the National Party in a majority [ forming a government only requires wining a plurality of SEATS - not to win the majority of the popular vote ] until after the 1960 referendum [ 4 ] on turning South Africa into a [ nominal ] republic. Therefore when folks accuse us of "creating Apartheid" one should give them a quick history lesson demonstrating that its creators were from abroad or from parents who were not from the lineage of the local peoples of the region.
1. Apartheid. New Histories.
2. [ The best known among these theorists was Dr Werner Eiselen, the son of a Berlin missionary and a highly qualified Africanist. ] Gunther Pakendorf. A Brief History of the Berlin Mission Society in South Africa.
3 Quote: [ Besides Verwoerd the creator of Apartheid ideology was his close confidant the German Werner Eiselen. ]
From Page 47 of South Africa, the prospects of peaceful change. By Theodor Hanf, Heribert Weiland, Gerda Vierdag.
4. Quote: [ After General Hertzog's renunciation of Republicanism in 1927, and particularly following "fusion" in 1934, a small group of intellectuals who ran the Afrikaner Broederbond set out quite deliberately and self-consciously to fashion a new 'Christian-national' identity for all white Afrikaans-speakers. Yet most of this target group displayed no great interest in such a definition of 'their' culture and identity. Electoral studies reveal that it was probably not until the election of 1958, or even the 1960 referendum on the Republic, that an overwhelming majority of white Afrikaans-speakers voted for the National Party and its project to 'Afrikanerize' South Africa. ]
Dan O'Meara. Département de science politique Université du Québec à Montréal.
Addendum: On an interesting note - the goal of Separate Development was to end Apartheid - or at least it was SOLD to the people as a means to end Apartheid. [ ie: segregation. ] Read the following excerpt.
[ Piet Meyer ascribed full credit to the man at the top. "Verwoerd gave us our direction. He said that Apartheid must end. Now it is going to be Separate Development. We have to give them full freedom & independence. It took a lot of selling. I had doubts myself". ] Page 176 - 177. The White Tribe of Africa. South Africa in Perspective. By David Harrison.
Though some folks will assert that any system that maintains a White regime over the bulk of the South African macro state is Apartheid even though the regimes were in the process of considering granting a lot more land to the TBVC states to make them contiguous. But that plan faced the problems as noted by Werner Eiselen in the above quote. The key to having made Separate Development truly work would have been with the viable development of the TBVC states & other self governing regions into stable self sufficient polities. Which of course was easier said than done. Paradoxically the various South African regimes refused to grant the Boer people self determination as the Boers were politically co-opted into the larger White electorate & largely under the dispossessing Afrikaner designation. Thus Boer independence would have caused a significant portion of the White electorate to transfer out of South Africa proper & into their own Boer homeland / republic.
For further reading:
The Apartheid Dialectic. Examining how Apartheid was implemented & its subsequent dialectic.